I found a few different possible PhD programs that I think would suit me, but there is only one that currently stands out:
The University of Indiana, Bloomington, for a PhD in Cognitive Science with a PhD minor in Computer Science.
The minor is required, but keeps me close to my BS/MS roots, which is ideal. I'm also required to choose a content specialization (ie Language Processing, Dynamical Systems, Analogy, Animal Cognition, and Human-Computer Interaction). These are the examples given, but I can choose another, with approval. It looks like the program doesn't take too long, either, which also works in my favor. I'm going to keep looking into it, as well as other programs.